The Pro’s & Con’s of Window Tinting


When you want to upgrade your home to improve energy efficiency, residential window tinting is an option worth exploring. Here are the pros and cons of window tinting to help you to decide if and how best to utilize this green feature in your home.


Reduction in your utility bills. You could save up to 40 percent on your utility bill by adding tinting to your windows. This results from a reduction in heat transfer into the home in summer time with less use of central air and fans, and out of the home in winter time. That means a savings that over time will be cheaper than window replacement.

Return on investment. Those savings in your utility bills amount to an excellent return on investment.

Protect your interior fabrics. Window tinting works to block the UV light that enters your home, with estimates that 99 percent of US rays are blocked. The UV rays are what damage your furniture by fading colors.

Clear windows. The latest window tinting technology is no longer a literal fix: your windows don’t have to be dark, or look reflective, in order to block UV rays and give you the benefits. You will maintain your clear windows and your views.

Reduced heat in your home. Window tinting can reduce the heat of the sun in your home, too. So when you are sitting by a window the window tinting will block 55 percent of the heat coming into your home making you feel more comfortable in your home.

Added security. Residential window tinting, which goes on a like a film, can protect you and your family when accidents happen a window breaks. The tinting prevents the window from shattering, and keeps those small pieces of glass from hiding on the floor causing injury later.

Utility company rebates. Many utility companies, like those in the state of California, offer rebates to customers who add use window tinting.

Good deal when buying new windows. If you budget is super tight, the combination of a less expensive window and window tinting can give you the efficiency of some levels of triple-paned windows.


Warranty problems. Unfortunately, some double pane window manufacturers will void their warranty since residential window tinting is a retrofit. Other manufacturers do not.

Difficult to apply. Improperly applied window tinting can leave unsightly bubbling because the window frames and latches make it difficult to apply.

Choosing which film to use. Different installers have their preferences of which tinting is the best to use. You can check out NFRC certification, which rates different brands and types of window tinting for energy efficiency based on solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and other efficiency standards.

A second issue arises when choosing the right film for your climate.   Where you live will determine which type to buy. The clear film, which lets in light and keeps out solar heat that comes in during high temperatures, is not as beneficial in cold climates where you want the passive solar heat gains. Choose your window tinting carefully.

Roof Maintenance Checklist


If you are a homeowner in the San Francisco Bay Area who wants to ensure the longest possible lifespan for your roof while helping to prevent any damage to your home’s interior, an annual roofing inspection will serve you well. Regardless of whether you’re a do-it-yourself minded individual or if you prefer to hire a professional, the same issues will be thoroughly assessed during the inspection.

Interior Moisture Can Degrade Roofing Materials

Since a significant enemy to your roof is interior moisture which can cause warping on your shingles, its important to check the condition of your attic insulation and complete any necessary upgrades as soon as possible. In addition to keeping humid air out of your attic where it can cause numerous types of structural damage, adding additional attic insulation will also reduce the energy usage of your home and save you money on your utility bills year round.

Check the Condition of All Aspects of Your Roof

When you’re ready to complete the outdoor portion of your roofing inspection, you can either immediately set up a ladder and climb onto your roof (if you feel comfortable), or break out a pair of binoculars to get a decent idea of the condition of each of the following issues from the ground. You can always follow up with a closer look or call a professional if you notice any signs of problems, such as:

  • Shingles that are curling during cold weather, particularly around the bottom edge of your roof
  • Surface cracking anywhere on your roof, indicating worn, brittle shingles
  • Blistering, which can indicate a manufacturer defect in your roofing materials or poor ventilation within your attic
  • Any shingles that are loose, broken or completely missing, as well as any popped nails, indicating a need for immediate repair or replacement
  • Moss or lichen growing on your roof, indicating the presence of rot beneath the surface; algae growth, on the other hand, is cosmetic, but can be removed if you prefer
  • Chimney, skylight, or vent flashing with cracked sealant or rust on the surface
  • Colored grit in your gutters, indicating that your shingles may be nearing the end of their lifespan. Since those sand-like particles are designed to protect your shingles from UV damage, your roof will deteriorate more quickly once they begin to separate from the shingles themselves
  • Buildup of debris within your gutters, which should be promptly cleared to allow proper water drainage from your roof

Decide Who Will Complete Any Needed Repairs

Once you’ve completed your basic assessment, you will be able to decide if you are comfortable completing any needed repairs or would prefer to contact a professional. Simple fixes like adding caulk to cover any cracks in your flashing, replacing a few missing or broken shingles, and/or hammering down any popped nails can often be handled by you as the homeowner and save you the cost of a service call, but more serious issues such as badly degraded shingles may warrant a complete roof replacement, and that’s a job that’s definitely best handled by the pros.

If you are in need of any professional roofing services in the San Francisco Bay area, including attic insulation, contact Pacific Coast Roofing Service. Our family owned team of business professionals would be happy to assist you any step of the way, from your basic annual roof inspection to the installation of a completely new roof.

Why Hire a Professional to Install Your Homes Window Tinting?


For any home renovation project, there are always people ready to attempt to tackle it on their own as a “do-it-yourself” home improvement project. This is especially true for small projects that do not seem intimidating, such as tinting the windows of your home. After all, this project seems deceptively simple – cut a piece of window tint to size and adhere it to the interior side of the window. But while the job may seem easy, there is a lot more skill and time involved than you might think. Here are four reasons why you should choose to hire a professional window tinting team to install your home’s window tinting.

Expert Product Suggestions and Advice

Just like any other products, certain brands of window tint perform better and are more durable. If you are attempting to install your own window tinting, you will not know what qualities and features to look for when purchasing your tint. Many of the products readily available in home improvement stores are much thinner and less effective than the brands a professional company will install. When you first contact a window tinting company, they will discuss the type of windows your house has, as well as your wants and needs. They possess the experience and knowledge necessary to help you select the best window tinting for your house.

Quick Project Completion

Do it yourself projects never seem to go as quickly as intended. Although applying window tint may seem like an easy job you can complete over the weekend, the process of precisely cutting each piece to size, thoroughly cleaning the windows prior to adhesion, and applying the tint without bubbling or wrinkling can be time consuming. It’s easy for this “weekend” project to drag on for weeks or even months.

Window tinting companies have a lot of experience and practice in applying tint to home windows. Because they know how to work quickly and effectively, their team will be able to complete the project in no time at all, letting you get on with your life instead of dealing with lengthy renovations.

Professional Quality Results

Window tint is a very thin film that is placed on the interior side of your home’s windows. This large piece of film is flimsy and delicate. If you are not accustomed to handling window tint, it can be very easy to wrinkle or tear it while attempting to move it. Many things can go wrong during the installation process as well, such as applying the tint crooked on the window, getting bubbles or wrinkles in the film that you cannot smooth out, or sealing particles of dust and dirt in between the film and glass due to the window not being completely clean.

Due to their vast experience, professional teams know how to install window tint right the first time, every time. In the rare event that something goes wrong, the company will work to correct the problem until you are completely satisfied with the results.

Long Term Increased Savings

Because the window tint available in home improvement stores is typically thinner than the products professionals use, it allows more light and UV rays into the house. This means it will have a much smaller effect on your utility bills. Although it may cost more to hire a professional team upfront, you will make up the difference by enjoying increased savings in the long run.

When you choose to hire a professional window tinting team to install your home’s window tinting, you will receive professional results quickly and can start enjoying the many benefits right away.

What Exactly Do UL Ratings Mean?

Generally, lighting and other electrical items come in various designs based on their operational requirements. Purchasing these electric lighting equipment for your home or business is not that a challenging task. However, doing so will still require a little education on your part.

If you are familiar with the lighting items present in your home or business, you could be familiar with the UL rating on a light bulb. Have you ever asked yourself what does it mean in the first place? What role does it play towards a person’s choice when it comes to light source preference? Knowing the basics of the UL ratings will provide you an idea on which type of lighting item is best for a specific location. Knowing what a UL rating is all about can also help you maintain the safety of your home and establishment.

Overview of UL Ratings

The UL in UL Ratings stands for Underwriters Laboratories. It is an international organization that was established to cater to the safety of different businesses and services. One of their primary tasks it to issues safety certification to businesses for the welfare of the business and the consumer.

Underwriters Laboratories is an independent company that strives to establish specific sets of rules and regulations with regards to certain products. Some of these products include beverage, food, wireless communication, etc. However, you need to know that not all lamps and lighting items that are sold in the market are UL certified. Nonetheless, Underwriters Laboratories makes sure that they establish strict standards for compliance and comprehensive product testing with the lighting industry. This is to ensure that all products are safe and provide the best energy efficiency possible.

UL Rated for Dry Locations

Lamps or any other lighting equipment that are not UL rated means that they can be used in dry locations, specifically indoors. They are known for their natural energy efficiency. You can usually find the UL rating information on the container or the box of the lighting equipment when you first purchased it. Typically, you will see under the UL listing saying either “yes” or “no.” A “yes” means that the lamp can be installed on dry locations. If the lighting was not yet tested by Underwriters Laboratories then you will likely see a “no” under the UL listing.

Any lighting equipment that is considered UL listed should not be overly exposed to wet location. However, a slight contact with little water does not pose any serious threat to the equipment. Also, it is crucial that there is proper ventilation in the area to make sure to prevent accumulation of pressure. Lamps that are UL rated can be installed in dry locations like the hallway; living room and dining room.

UL Rated for Damp Locations

Always bear in mind that you cannot use a dry location lamp since they can be easily damaged. These lighting equipment are labeled as “Suitable for Damp Locations.” This type of lighting is ideal for locations that are usually humid. These are areas are usually saturated with water such as the bathroom and stove.

Lighting equipment that is UL listed for damp locations can be used both indoors and outdoors. For example, you can make use a damp lamp inside your sauna room because these are areas are usually humid and the lights can still keep out of the water’s reach. It is highly advised that you can use these lamps by installing water safe fixtures. Although they are listed as suitable for damp locations, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you can submerged them into the water. By installing a water safe fixture, you can protect your lighting from any form of water damage. If you only want the best energy efficiency for this UL rated lighting then make sure that you take good care of it.

As previously mentioned, you can use damp lamps outside your home.  You can have it installed in your patio or porch as long as the area is covered. Always remember that you keep them away from direct contact with water such as rainwater.

UL Rated for Wet Locations

Lamps that can be used for wet locations have the label “Suitable for Wet Locations.” These types of lighting equipment can withstand being subjected water or other types of liquids. These types of lighting go through comprehensive tests to ensure that they are durable enough to endure intense amount of wetness.

Since they are deemed as suitable for any wet location, they can be used both indoors and outdoors. You can also make use of them in lieu of damp location lamps. You can usually find them installed on outdoor walls, gazebos, enclosed showers and air decks.


These are just some of the information that you need to know about UL ratings. This will help you identify which type of lamp goes to which location. This will keep you and your home safe and let you choose which light source provides better energy efficiency. Just bear all these information in mind and you are good to go.


Roofing Maintenance Checklist


A roof is a vital part of your home. Like other aspects of your house, it will need regular roofing maintenance and inspection for issues to stay in good shape and keep the leaks out. The amount of maintenance required, and the lifespan of your roof will depend on the materials you use and the weather your house is exposed to.

Basic Roofing Inspections

What to Look For:

The best way to determine if repairs or maintenance are needed is to conduct an inspection of your roof.  Inspections are recommended about twice a year. Examine your roof once before the cold/wet season, and once at the end of  winter. Check for signs of aging. Cold weather can cause curling along the edges. Brittle shingles may show surface cracks, and bubbles can indicate ventilation issues.

Walk around your house and inspect the roof from the top, sides, inside and out. Check the attic and make sure it is insulated properly and that there are no leaks. Attic insulation can increase the lifespan of your roof and protect it from the elements. Check your gutters and downspouts. Make sure the areas are working properly and aren’t clogged. Proper water drainage is especially important with areas that experience heavy or frequent rain.

Professional Opinions:

If you detect signs of major moisture issues, it’s best not to rush and tear apart your roof to find a leak. Instead, try getting a professional moisture survey. There are three primary kinds of moisture detection:

  • Infrared Scans – These scans can detect how much heat is being retained or lost. Think of it like a ‘soggy insulation’ detector.
  • Nuclear Isotopic Meters – While this sounds like some sort of scary radiation scanner, it’s really a device that detects Hydrogen atoms. Since water is H2O chemically, the more H’s detected, the more water is present.
  • Electrical Capacity/Resistance – Water is highly conductive, so the better your roof conducts – the more water is present.

Professionals can detect widespread problems and propose the best solution for you. If our regular maintenance is not enough, a whole house solution can be developed to keep you dry.

Roofing Materials

Here are some of the common types of roofing material and their general maintenance concerns:

  • Asphalt Shingles – The most commonly used type of roofing for American homes, these shingles have varying lifespans based on the kind purchased but are easy to install and patch.
  • Wood Shingle or Shake – Beautiful and classic, this wooden roofing can be high maintenance. Frequent cracks and rotting from moisture require regular inspections and maintenance.
  • Clay & Concrete Tiles – Usually offering a lifespan of 50 years, these tiles are highly durable and energy efficient. Due to the extra weight involved, proper installation is a must to prevent issues down the road.
  • Metal Roofing – Metals are available in new and recycled options, in materials including copper, aluminum, and steel. Lightweight and highly durable, these roofs are very resistant to adverse weather. Look for dents and dings that may require cosmetic repairs.

For more information on roofing maintenance and installation, consult your local expert.

Making the Switch to LED lighting


LED (light-emitting diode) lights have a number of benefits over traditional, incandescent lights. In terms of energy efficiency and lifespan, LED lights really shine. Did you know, though, that LED lights are also lower voltage, more durable and much cheaper over their entire lifespan than incandescent lights?

Savings with LED Lights 

Let’s face it – incandescent light bulbs have been a tremendous drain on peoples’ utility bills for decades.

Since incandescent bulbs unhelpfully convert most of the energy that goes into them into heat rather than light, incandescents can be very inefficient (and expensive). In fact, homeowners spend on average 30 percent of their electricity bill on lighting alone.

Enter LED lights. It’s been estimated that some LED lights can last years and give homeowners back in massive savings over the same period. The US Department of Energy even estimates that LED lights can last up to 25 times longer than halogen incandescents.

The US Department of Energy also says that LED lights only use one-fourth the amount of energy that incandescent bulbs do. This means that LED lights are also more energy efficient compared to old-fashioned incandescent bulbs.

When you consider how efficient, durable and ultimately cost-saving LED lights are, the evidence really starts to pile up in LED’s favor.

Incandescent Vs. LED Bulbs 

Since LED lights are much more energy efficient and durable over their lifespan than incandescent bulbs, LED lights save users money over the long term.

How much money? The average price for a kilowatt hour of electricity in the United States is approximately eleven cents. The thinking goes that if you use one thousand watts over an hour, you would end up paying eleven cents, on average.

So, how does this relate back to the incandescent versus LED argument. Simply put, incandescent lights use around 60 watts whereas an average LED light uses just under 10 watts. The higher energy efficiency of the LED means cost savings for homeowners.

The Numbers Are In: LEDs The Winner 

Just consider that the monthly watt expenditure of lighting the average home is 3,000 watts with an army of incandescent bulbs whereas a home lit with LED lights runs under 500 watts monthly.

Doing the calculations and inputing the average cost of electricity in the US and the energy efficiency of both incandescent and LED bulbs, switching to LED lights could save homeowners an average of forty dollars per month.

This number takes into account the fact that LED lights turn much more energy into usable light – whereas incandescents squander a lot of energy turning energy into heat.

LED lights are also more resilient over their lifespan as well, which means that LEDs quickly pay for themselves in durability and long-term energy efficiency.

Moving During the Week vs Weekend

moving-during-the-week-vs-weekendIt probably comes as no surprise that the weekend is the most popular time for people to schedule a move. It’s easier to get time off work on a Saturday or Sunday, and for some this seems like a commonsense choice. However, the popularity of weekend moves is one of the biggest cons for this traditional schedule. Carefully consider both options to determine which is right for you.

Moving on a weekday has many benefits. If you have children, your weekday move can take place while they’re at school and not underfoot. Neighborhoods and apartment complexes are generally quieter and more deserted during a weekday as well. While you may find your new neighbors strolling over to poke around and say hello on a weekend, you’re more likely to enjoy a quiet solitary experience on a weekday.

If you’re able to take two or three days off of work, you can merge your weekday move with the weekend and potentially return to work on Monday well-rested, refreshed, and settled in to your new home. Schedule your move for Wednesday or Thursday, use two or three days to settle in, and relax on Sunday before you head back to the grind.

Rush hour traffic is often cited as a source of concern for families planning to move during the week. This is easily avoided, however. Simply schedule your movers for a little later in the morning so you’ll hit the road just after rush hour. Speak with your moving company about the size of your home. They can provide you with a good estimate as to how long it will take the movers to load and unload the truck so you can avoid rush hour traffic.

One of the biggest cons to moving on a weekday is the issue of taking time off work. For some, this may require unpaid days off. While this can hurt your income for the month, you should take a moment to consider the savings you’ll get from the moving company for choosing a weekday. Friday, Saturday, and Sunday moves are almost always more expensive.

If you’re still leaning toward a weekend move, you’ll find there are benefits to this choice, too. If you need extra hands to help you clean up your old home or prepare the new one, it will be easier to enlist the help of friends and family on the weekend. Older children may offer a great deal of help. If this is the case, it’s beneficial to move on a weekend when they’re out of school.

The ultimate decision of whether to move on a weekend or weekday is a personal matter of your schedule and preferences. Schedule your move well in advance to make sure you can arrange for the help you need from professional movers, friends, and others. A well-planned move will keep things running smoothly so you can get settled in your new home in no time.

Tips for Installing Self Adhesive Window Film


Installing self adhesive window film is not only an excellent way to protect your draperies, carpeting and other furnishings from the damage that often results from exposure to the sun’s harmful UV rays, but it is a magnificent choice when it comes to reflecting the amount of heat and light that enters your home as well. While many consumers choose to employ an experienced technician to install window film, the simplicity of the process has enabled some consumers to save a few of their hard-earned dollars and install the film themselves.

If you are considering installing self adhesive window film yourself you will be delighted to know that this DIY project is as simple, much faster and definitely cleaner than installing most wallpaper and with a little bit of patience and preparation, and by following these important tips, you can be well on your way to film protected windows in no time.

  • Gather the following supplies and place them on a roll-away cart or in a tool bag so that you will have them within reach as you move from window to window:
    • Paper Towels, Coffee Filters or Lint-Free Cloth
    • Spray Bottle
    • Measuring Tape
    • 9″ Squeegee
    • Utility Knife with a few extra blades
    • Razor Scraper
    • Baby Shampoo ( to be used as a film aid concentrate)
  • Before you begin, clean your windows with a mixture of 1 teaspoon baby shampoo and 1 quart water to remove any dirt, water spots and residue. Avoid using commercially prepared glass cleaner or cleaners that contain ammonia or vinegar, as they can damage the film’s adhesive.
  • If you must use chemicals to clean heavily soiled windows or to remove smoke stains, follow up with a thorough baby shampoo and water rinse.
  • If you are having trouble separating the film from the protective liner, place a small piece of scotch tape on either side of the window film at the corner and gently pull the pieces apart.
  • Window film can cause the blade on your utility knife to dull quickly, making it difficult to cut the window film. Plan to use a new blade for approximately every 10 ft. of film you cut or trim.
  • Handle the window film carefully. Roll larger pieces of film to help prevent creasing which can permanently damage the window film.
  • Begin with smaller windows first if possible in order to help you build confidence and skill before you move on to larger, more difficult windows.
  • Windows that are larger than 3ft. to 4ft. wide often require two people in order to effectively remove the liner and install the film without mishap.
  • Avoid installing the self adhesive window film in direct sunlight or when temperatures are below freezing. The best time to install window film is when temperatures are between 45 and 90 degrees F.
  • If your windows are larger than the size of the film, overlap the edges of the film and trim at the center to obtain a professional looking seam.
  • Approximately one week after installation, use clear fingernail polish to weatherproof any seams.
  • Apply the mixture of baby shampoo and water generously to the window and the adhesive side of the film before attempting to apply the window film. The solution acts as a lubricant, making correct placement much simpler.
  • Use the squeegee to help remove large air bubbles and to finalize the application. Spray the window film generously with the solution before applying the squeegee.

Use Lighting to Create the Perfect Mood

use-lighting-to-create-the-perfect-moodA great way to set different moods in different parts of the house is to use LED lighting. LEDs are cordless, come in many different colors and light intensities, and are extremely energy and cost efficient. Avoid the long cords of traditional lamps. Often times, you are overpaying on your electric bill if you only use incandescent bulbs in your home. Mix in some LED lights, which use a fraction of the energy traditional light bulbs use and are much brighter, and watch your energy usage drop every month. With LED lights, you can light your home effectively and set different moods in different rooms while saving money on your electric bill. It’s a win-win-win.

Fine Dining.  Spruce up your next dinner party or romantic dinner with LED lights on your dining table. Get a glass cover and slip LED lights underneath it to dazzle your guests and dates. LED lights can have their brightness controlled. Set the lights under the glass covering to a soft glow, and you’ll find yourself in a magical restaurant with food and atmosphere just for you. Simulate candle light without worrying about fire hazards or messy wax. Turn your dining room table into a magical spectacle of light.

Set the Mood Outdoors.  Light the path to your outdoor paradise with LED lighting in the back yard. Again, lights out on the patio or along your beautiful walkway can make it seem like you’ve transported yourself to a candle-lit Spanish villa. Soft lighting in the walkways can make your back yard safer without adding bright, ugly flood lights. You and your guests can still see where they’re going without lighting up the whole neighborhood to do it. A warm, yellow-orange glow in your backyard can add a sense of romance while being safe and energy efficient.

Lighted Seating.  Have a home theater? Light the way to your seats with strips along the floor or add to the movie theater effect by adding LED lights to the seats themselves. The right amount of light can cast a warm, inviting feeling in your private theater. If your theater is your favorite chair, consider LED lights on its arms or legs to set the room aglow for movie night in your living room. Have fun with the colors. Set a soft red for horror movies, or a softer golden light for romantic comedies.

Basic Lighting Tips.  LED lights are great for setting the mood in various rooms, and saving some money while you’re at it. They give you a great freedom in the color and style of the lights and can add both flair and somberness to any room for any occasion.

When you are decorating your interior, think about the lighting effects and what each room will likely be used for. The living room, for example, will likely be used to watch TV or movies, so the lighting should be low and the décor relatively simple, usually. For living rooms with some more flair, consider LED lights in different colors that accentuate the daring decorations you have placed there. The lighting should go along with the items of decoration in every room. In addition to providing light to the interior of your home, LED lights can be decorations themselves. Use them to bring out the life in any room of the house. Lighting is a key piece of the ambiance of a space, so make use of all the lighting options you can. LED lights can be great options, but think about chandeliers, old-style lamps, and bright, decorative overhead lights that add to the ambiance and décor.

A Brief History of Roofing

a-brief-history-of-roofingAs long as there has been a history of mankind, there has been a history of roofing. Since no one likes to sleep out in the rain or snow, even the earliest primitive humans were in need of coverage. While caves certainly provide adequate shelter, they are often dank and moist, riddled with wildlife and otherwise not very hospitable. As a result, man soon set out to build freestanding homes. In fact, one of the earliest roofing materials was a mammoth skin found in Siberia, dating back to 40,000 BC.

Stretched hide, sod and other natural materials, remained the constant throughout much of early mans history. It was much more recently, by historical standards, that tiles have been developed. The earliest known case of a glazed roof tile was discovered in China, dating back to around 5000 years ago. Many examples of Chinese architecture still use this same style of elaborate roof tile, even today, albeit in temple structures and palaces. Wonderful examples of Chinese architecture and roofing can be found in the forbidden city museum in Beijing.

Around this same time, flat earthenware tiles were developed in what is now modern day Greece. These same types of shingles were adopted by the romans and eventually brought to England around 100 BC. For the next 800 years these clay tiles were widely used, by the wealthier portion of society, throughout Western Europe.

Thatchery has been an important part of structural architecture since the inception of the first straw huts. When animal skins were scarce, tightly bundled reeds and fronds quickly became a suitable substitute for semi-nomadic ancient human tribes. The same concept persisted throughout the ages and many dwellings, even stone buildings, were capped with a straw roof. Thatchery remained in practice right up into modern day as a low cost, abundantly available solution, for people that could not afford the more expensive clay tile shingles.

Roofing has changed significantly over the last 200 years and modern building materials have little in common with the reeds or clay of roofs of the past. In more recent years, eco-friendly materials and energy conservation in general has become the focal point of roofing research and development. Advances in materials, smog absorbing tiles, and even built in solar panels all strive towards saving money while maintaining an esthetically pleasing roof.

The profession of roofing has come a long way from those first animal skins strung over our heads 40,000 years ago. But the desire and need to build safe and comfortable shelter remained the same throughout the ages. As the roofing industry moves forward into the future, new and innovative technology will set the scene for safe, economical and harmonious trends.